Cambridge Professional English 13 страница

4 platform-independent

5 object-oriented programming

a an auxiliary program that enables web browsers to support new content, for example animation

b software that can run on any operating system

с an island in Indonesia, coffee (in American slang), and a programming language for internet applications

d a computer programming technique that allows the creation of objects that interact with each other and can be used as the foundation of others; used to create graphical user interfaces

e a small Java application, usually designed to run automatically within a web page





2 The Java language

A These statements about Java are all false. Read the text and correct them.

1 Java was invented Cambridge Professional English 13 страница by Microsoft.

2 With the interpreter, a program is first converted into Java bytecodes.

3 Java is not compatible with most computing platforms.

4 The Java language is single-threaded, one part executing at a time.

5 Java has no competitors.

6 Flash files are called animations.

The Java language


Java is a programming language developed by Sun Microsystems, specially designed to run on the Web. Java programs (called applets) let you watch animated characters and moving text, play music, and interact with information on the screen (for example, control animations and select options).

Characteristics of the Java language

Java is an object-oriented language Cambridge Professional English 13 страница, similar to С++, but more dynamic and simplified to eliminate possible programming errors. A Java program is both compiled and interpreted (see Unit 24). First, the source code (a file with a Java extension) is compiled and converted into a format called bytecode (a file with a .class extension), which can then be executed by a Java interpreter (see Fig. 1). Compiled Java code can run on most computers because there are Java interpreters, known as Java Virtual Machines, for most operating systems.

Java is multi-threaded, meaning a Java program can have multiple threads (parts) - that is, many different things Cambridge Professional English 13 страница processing independently and continuously.This enables the program to make the best use of available CPU power.

Why is Java popular?

Most programmers like Java because it allows them to write applets which make web pages more interactive and attractive. They can create graphical objects (for example, bar charts and diagrams) and new controls (for example, check boxes and push buttons with special properties). A web page that uses Java can have sounds that play in real time, music that plays in the background, cartoon-style animations, real-time video and interactive games.

The Java Micro Edition platform Cambridge Professional English 13 страница (Java ME) is used in mobile devices. It provides flexible tools to create applications that run on mobile phones, PDAs,TV set-top boxes and printers. Nowadays, most phones are configured to use Java games.

Alternatives to Java

One alternative to Java is Microsoft's C#, pronounced С sharp', a .NET language based on С++ with elements from Visual Basic and Java.There are no substantial differences between C# and Java. When software developers do measurements on pieces of code, sometimes Java is faster, sometimes C# is.

Another competitor is Adobe Flash technology, which supports graphics, a scripting language called ActionScript Cambridge Professional English 13 страница, and the streaming of audio and video. Flash is used to create animation and advertisements, to integrate video into web pages, and to develop rich internet applications such as portals. Flash files, traditionally called flash movies, have a .swf file extension. They may be an object on a web page or be played in the stand-alone Flash Player.



Fig. 1


Unit

В Match the words (1-6) with the words (a-f) to make technical terms from the text.

1 Java 4 web a applet d system

2 operating 5 source b page e object

3 programming 6 graphical с code f language

С Complete the sentences with words Cambridge Professional English 13 страница from the box.

interpreted animated configured used pronounced object-oriented compiled

1 Java lets you watch................................ characters on web pages.

2 Java is an............................. language, similar to С++ but more dynamic.

3 First, the source code of a Java program is.................................... into an intermediate format called



byrecode.This is then................................ by any system possessing a Java interpreter.

4 The Java ME platform is widely.................................. in mobile devices.

5 Nowadays, most mobile phones are.................................... to use Java games.

6 Microsoft's C# is a simplified version of С and С++ for the Web. It's...................................... С sharp'.

Language work: the -ed form

A Look at the HELP box and then Cambridge Professional English 13 страница put these verbs into the correct column.


stopped

asked

described

decided

produced

called

watched

executed

published

object-oriented

programmed

persuaded

configured

converted

arranged

designed


N

/67

Ad/



The -ed form


We use the -ed form in the following ways:

• To make the past simple (affirmative) of regular verbs

Sun Microsystems developed Java in 1995.

Remember that not all verbs in the past simple end in -ed. See page 166 for a list of irregular verbs. See Unit 19 for more about the past simple.

• To make the past participle of regular verbs Flash is used to create animation.

• To make the adjectival form of some verbs Java applets let you watch animated characters.

The -ed is pronounced as:

• Л/ after voiceless sounds Cambridge Professional English 13 страница: /р/, /к/, /6/, /s/, HI, /[/or /t[/. (e.g. developed, talked, pronounced)

• Id/ after voiced sounds: /Ь/, Igl, /5/, Izl, N1, /&$/, /1/, /г/; nasal consonants: /т/, In/, /rj/; and vowels (e.g. compiled, designed, simplified)

• /id/ after Itl or /d/ (e.g. interpreted, multi-threaded)


В Complete this extract from a lecture handout about Java with the correct form of the verbs in the box.

call be begin can decide rename have support develop base

The idea for Java started in 1990, when a team of software engineers at Sun

Microsystems (1)..................................... to create a language for a handheld device

that could control and interact with Cambridge Professional English 13 страница various kinds of electronic appliances, ranging from Nintendo Game Boys to VCRs and TV set-top boxes. They

(2)............................... an object-oriented programming language that one of the

engineers, James Gosling, (3)............................................ Oak, after the tree outside his

window. The device even (4)............................................. an animated character named

Duke, who would go on to become Java's mascot.

With the advent of the Web in 1993, the company made a web browser

(5)............................... on the Oak language. Later on, this language was adapted

to the Internet and (6)........................................ Java. The 1.0 version of Java was

officially introduced by Sun in May 1995.

At that time, web pages (7)............................................ only display text, pictures and

hyperlinks. With the arrival of Cambridge Professional English 13 страница Java, web designers (8)......................................................... able to

include animation and interactive programs on web pages. The first major application created with Java was the Hotjava browser. The Java language

(9)............................... to attract serious attention from the internet community

and was soon (10)........................................ by Netscape Navigator and MS Internet

Explorer. Today, Java is a hot technology that runs on multiple platforms, including smart cards, embedded devices, mobile phones and computers.

С BJj Listen to an extract from the lecture and check your answers to C. Listen carefully to the pronunciation of the verbs that end in -ed.


Your experience with computers

A Make notes about the different stages Cambridge Professional English 13 страница in your computer history. Add more stages if you want to.

Example: 7 990: Played my first computer game. It was ...

Possible stages:

Useful language

When did you first...? How long ago did you...? How old were you when ...? I started... in... I learnt... when I was... I didn't use the Internet until.

в □

First computer game First computer lesson at school/college First programming language learnt First software used First computer course/qualification First job involving computers First steps on the Internet First chat online

Ask a partner about their computer history.

Look at the Useful language box to help you.


unit26 Jobs Cambridge Professional English 13 страница in ICT

IT professionals

A Complete these definitions with jobs from the box.

software engineer computer security specialist blog administrator help desk technician DTP operator hardware engineer network administrator webmaster


1 A........................................................................ designs and develops IT devices.

2 A........................................................................ writes computer programs.

3 A........................................................................ edits and deletes posts made by contributors to a blog.

4 A........................................................................ uses page layout software to prepare electronic files for

publication.

5 A................................................................

network.

6 A................................................................

7 A................................................................

manages the hardware and software that comprise a


.............................................................. designs and maintains websites.

.............................................................. works with companies to build secure computer systems.

8 A........................................................................ helps end-users with their computer problems in person,

by email or over the phone Cambridge Professional English 13 страница.

В E Listen to four people on a training course introducing themselves and talking about their jobs. Which job in A does each person do?

Speaker 1.......................................................... Speaker 3.........................................................

Speaker 2.......................................................... Speaker 4.........................................................


О

Job advertisements

A

In pairs, read the two job advertisements on page 130 and tick (✓) the most important qualities and abilities (1-10) for each job. Add more to the list if you can. Which three things do you think are most important for each job?

Senior programmer

DTP operator

logical reasoning

patience and tenacity

being good with figures

imagination

self-discipline

accuracy

leadership skills

efficiency

creativity

drawing skills


вО


Discuss if you would like to apply for one of the jobs. Give reasons for your


answers.


DIGITUM-UK

SENIOR PROGRAMMER required Cambridge Professional English 13 страница by DIGITUM-UK, a leading supplier of business systems to the insurance industry.

You will be able to work on the full range of software development activities - analysis, design, coding, testing, debugging and implementation. At least two years' experience of COBOL or С++ is necessary.

As we are active in Europe, fluency in French, Italian or another European language is desirable.

Don't miss this opportunity to learn new skills and develop your career.

Send your CV to CHRIS SCOTT, PERSONNEL MANAGER, DIGITUM-UK, 75 PARKSHILL STREET, LONDON SW14 3DE

You can visit our website at www.digitum-uk Cambridge Professional English 13 страница.com

DTP operator

required for a leading financial magazine.

We are looking for a bright, competent QuarkXPress operator with at least three years' experience in design and layout. Skills in Photoshop, Freehand or Illustrator an advantage.

Ability to work in a team and to tight deadlines is vital.

Please apply in writing, with CV and samples of your work, to Tom Parker, Production Manager, Financial Monthly, Stockton Street, London EC1A 4WW Or apply online:

■ in hi 111—и» hp mi . iS^S-;-^

Apply now


С Look at the online profile for Charles Graham. Which of the jobs above is most appropriate for him?



Charles Cambridge Professional English 13 страница Graham 22 years old

Professional summary

I graduated in 2004 with A levels in English, Art and Maths, and went on to do a course in graphic design and page layout at Highland Art School. Since 2006 I've been a graphic designer for PromoPrint, a company specializing in publishing catalogues and promotional material, and have used Adobe InDesign and other DTP software.


3 A letter of application

A Read the letter of application on page 131 and answer these questions.

1 Which job is Sarah Brown applying for?

2 Where did she see the advertisement?

3 How long has she been working as a software engineer?

4 What type of Cambridge Professional English 13 страница programs has she written?

5 When did she spend three months in Spain?


Dear Mr Scott,


I am writing to apply for the position of Senior Programmer; which was advertised on 28th March in The Times.

I graduated in May 2002 and did a work placement with British Gas as part of my degree. Before

taking my present job I worked for a year with NCR. I stayed in this job (I).......... March

2004.

................. the last three years I have been working as a software engineer for Intelligent

(2)...............

Software. I have designed four programs in COBOL for commercial use, and (3)........

January I have been writing programs Cambridge Professional English 13 страница in С for use in large retail chains.These have been very successful and we have won several new contracts in the UK and Europe on the strength of my team's success.

Two years (4).................... I spent three months in Spain testing our programs and also made

several visits to Italy, so I have a basic knowledge of Spanish and Italian. I now feel ready for more responsibility and more challenging work, and would welcome the opportunity to learn about a new industry.

Yours sincerely, Sarah Brown

I enclose my curriculum vitae. I will be available for an interview at Cambridge Professional English 13 страница any time.

I look forward to hearing from you.

for, since, ago, until

В Look at the HELP box and then complete the letter with for, since, ago or until.

• We use for to refer to a period of time. I've lived in Liverpool for five years.

• We use since to refer to a point in time. I've been unemployed since May 2005.

• We use ago with the past simple to say when something happened. We put ago after the time period.

/ got married five years ago.

•We use until to mean up to a certain time. I stayed Cambridge Professional English 13 страница at high school until I was 18.

A job interview

fail Chris Scott, the Personnel Manager at Digitum-UK, is interviewing Sarah Brown. Listen to part of the interview and complete his notes.


Name: Sarah E>rown Qua/f-fi'cafions:

Degree in (I).................................................

(Aston University)

Languages: 3asic Spanish and Italian Work experience:

NCR: (2).................................. (one year)

Software for:

■Programs for:

(4)...........................................

Database knowledge:

(5)...........................................

'Present job: Works for Intelligent Software writing programs in C030L and С

"Reasons for applying:

(6)............................................


Language work: the present perfect

A Look at the HELP box and then choose the correct words in brackets to complete these sentences.

1 He Cambridge Professional English 13 страница ('s never liked /'s never been liking) Maths.

2 They ('ve worked /'ve been working) on the project all day.

3 John ('s used /'s been using) the computer for hours - he looks really tired.

4 How many emails (have you written / have you been writing) today?

5 She ('s written /'s been writing) this essay since 9 o'clock.

6 They (Ve interviewed / 've been interviewing) five candidates today.


Present perfect simple

We form the present perfect simple with have/has + past participle.

I've used Microsoft Access for many years. I haven't used Microsoft Access for years.

We use this tense to talk about Cambridge Professional English 13 страница:

• States that started in the past and continue to the present.

Since 2006, I've been a computer operator for PromoPrint.

•Past actions that continue to the present, where we put an emphasis on quantity {howmany).

I have designed four programs in COBOL.

• Personal experiences, especially with ever and never.

Have you ever worked with databases? I've never worked with databases.

Present perfect continuous

We form the present perfect continuous with have/has been + present participle.

Since January I've been writing programs in C.

We use this tense to talk about:

• Actions which started in the past and are Cambridge Professional English 13 страница still happening.

For the last three years I've been working as a software engineer for Intelligent Software.

• Past actions that continue to the present, where we put an emphasis on duration {how long).

She's been working all morning.

Contrast with the past simple

We use the past simple to talk about events that happened at a specific time in the past that are now finished.

/ graduated in May 2003.

Not: / have graduated in ...

I stayed in this job until March 2004.

Two years ago, I spent three months in Spain.


В Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect simple Cambridge Professional English 13 страница or past simple.

1 She (be)............................................ a software engineer since 2004.

2 After graduation I (work)................................................ for a year with NCR.

3 (you ever work).............................................. as an IT consultant?

4 I (lose)........................................... my PDA.

5 I (send)........................................... my CV last Monday. Have you received it yet?


~ I Make questions using these prompts. In pairs, ask and answer the questions.

1 ever / live or work in another country?

2 ever/have a bad job interview?

3 ever/do a job you hated?

4 how long / study English?

5 how long / use computers?

6 how many emails / receive today?

7 how many jobs / apply for this year?


Applying for a job

Look Cambridge Professional English 13 страница at the job

advertisement for a webmaster at eJupiter. Maria Quintana is interested in applying. Use her curriculum vitae on page 155 to write a letter of application. Follow these steps:

Paragraph one: reason for writing / am writing to apply for the position of...

Paragraph two: education and training

/ graduated in (date)... I completed a course in ...

Paragraph three: work experience For the past Xyears I have been ... Since XI have been ...


Vacancies at eJupiter.co.uk

Webmaster

We are seeking a Webmaster for eJupiter.co.uk, a company dedicated to e-commerce.

The successful candidate will manage our website. You will be responsible for making sure Cambridge Professional English 13 страница the web server runs properly, monitoring the traffic through the site, and designing and updating our web pages.

Experience of using HTML and Java is essential. Experience of Adobe PDF and Photoshop is an advantage. The successful candidate will also have knowledge of web editors - MS FrontPage or equivalent.

Send your CV and a covering letter to James Taylor, eJupiter Computers, 37 Oak Street, London SW10 6XY

J


Paragraph four: personal skills

/ spent X months in (country)... ,sol have knowledge of (foreign languages). I can ...

Paragraph five: reasons why you are applying for this job

/ now feel ready to... and would welcome the Cambridge Professional English 13 страница opportunity to ...

Paragraph six: closing / availability for interview

/ enclose... I look forward to... I will be available for an interview...

В Write your own CV in English, using Maria's CV as a guide.

С Think of your ideal job and write a letter of application for it. If you prefer, look on the Internet for real jobs and practise applying for those.

Ш/щ Now visit www.cambridge.org/elt/ict for an online task.


Computers tomorrow


Unit


page


In this module, you will:

learn about different ICT systems.

• study the basics of networking.

• describe networks.

• learn and use phrasal verbs Cambridge Professional English 13 страница common in ICT. describe different game platforms and genres, give opinions about video games.

learn and use adverbs.

learn how to write a For and Against essay.

make predictions about future trends.

• learn and use future forms.


unit27Communication systems



Information and communications technologies (ICT)

In pairs, discuss these questions.

1 What is an ICT system?

2 How many types of ICT system can you think of? Make a list.

3 How can a PC be connected to another computer?

В Label the pictures (1-7) with the ICT systems and services in the box.

Fax GPS Call centre Digital radio Teletext Wearable computer Digital TV



teletext Cambridge Professional English 13 страница ran

P500 Aug 15 ШЯМШ A police .h*f v*ys

«.едким! News ill

МИн 122

MH D.iy 5?4 Vour Sj, J2S

TISTWHVE / , -i—i Гищ

THE HEW CALIBER ' Letteis 528 »*»H) * — • More (pft-ъя wlf-d}

• A to 2

HUP ■ SHORTCUTS Mt Ни



П


С Complete these sentences with words and phrases from В and then read the text on page 136 to check your answers.

1 Digital Audio Broadcasting, or DAB, is the technology behind......................................................... DAB is

intended to replace FM in the near future.

2 ............................................ are designed to be worn on the body or integrated into the user's clothing.

3 Most existing TV sets can be upgraded to................................................... by connecting Cambridge Professional English 13 страница a digital decoder.

4 My grandfather is 75 and he still watches................................................... on TV to find out share prices,

weather forecasts and sports results.

5 I work in a............................................... I receive incoming calls with information inquiries. I also make

outgoing calls for telemarketing.

6 Please complete this form and send it by.................................................... or normal mail.

7 I have a............................................ navigation system in my car but I don't use it very often. My town

is small and I know it well.


Channels of communication


What are telecommunications?

Telecommunications refers to the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. Information is transmitted by Cambridge Professional English 13 страница devices such as the telephone, radio, television, satellite, or computer networks. Examples could be two people speaking on their mobile phone, a sales department sending a fax to a client, or even someone reading the teletext pages on TV. But in the modern world, telecommunications mainly means transferring information across the Internet, via modem, phone lines or wireless networks.

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